Each gardener will be pleased with the juicy and ripe eggplants, the cultivation and care of which are discussed in detail in our material. We will talk about the rules of soil preparation and planting seedlings, and the features of crop care, so that you can grow a great crop.
Eggplant (lat. Solanum melongena) is a tasty vegetable, but rather demanding in its care. It also has a scientific name - Nightshade of Dark-fruited and folk-blue. For a vegetable grower who has not yet encountered planting and caring for this crop, it is important to know how to grow eggplants properly in a greenhouse. With non-compliance with the rules of irrigation, or the wrong temperature conditions, the plant will not bear fruit, or even die.
Preparation of soil for growing eggplants in the greenhouse
Before planting seedlings conduct the preparation and tillage. In the fall, the earth is cleared of plant residues and debris, and then it is plentifully watered twice to flush out the substances and elements left after dressing.
Disinfection from diseases is carried out by spraying a solution of the soil and the inner surface of the greenhouse. For the preparation of 2 tbsp. copper sulphate, diluted in 10 liters. warm water. Having completed the treatment, the soil is dug up to 20-25 cm in depth, and left for the winter.
Cooking beds for growing eggplants in the greenhouse
In the spring, the earth is loosened, leveled and dug holes 15 cm deep. If the soil is good, black soil fertilizer is not required before planting, but potassium sulfate (1 tbsp) must be added to loamy soil, or it should be replaced with wood ash (1 cup), 1 sq.m. It is possible to use beginners to break the sawdust.
Before growing eggplants in the greenhouse, it is important to know the pH of the soil, it is necessary that its value does not exceed 6.7. To reduce the acidity make 2 tbsp. dolomite flour per 1 sq.m. For better retention of moisture in the soil brown lowland peat is applied at the rate of half a bucket (5 liters) per 1 sq. M.
Eggplant - planting and care in the greenhouse
Cultivation of eggplants in a greenhouse made of polycarbonate or glass by a non-seed method is practically not used. Since before the emergence of seedlings, it is necessary to maintain a temperature regime from plus 25 to plus 28 grams. Celsius.
Pre-prepare the wells for eggplant bushes by adding ash mixed with the earth in a 1: 1 ratio. Seedlings are planted in rows, at a distance of 60 cm, between bushes - 45 cm. After planting, water is watered with 1.5 liters of water. Instead of water, a weak 0.5% solution of potassium permanganate is also used for additional disinfection.
Seedlings for growing eggplant in the greenhouse
For planting take seedlings at least 20 cm high, with 8-9 developed leaves and roots, approximately at the age of 75 days. The soil temperature in a prepared greenhouse should be at least plus 15 grams. Celsius.
Young plants are planted 1.5 cm deeper than they grew in a box before planting (on average, up to 18 cm). Earth compacted, watered, poured on top of peat or humus. For growing in the greenhouse prefer low-growing hybrid varieties: Bagheera, Purple miracle, The Nutcracker.
Two weeks after planting the seedlings in the greenhouse they need to feed. For this purpose, you must choose one of the complex fertilizers: Kemira Universal, nitrophoska, Mortar. Approximate consumption - 1.5 tbsp. on 1 square meter bed. Dry bushes podsypki podsypkami, then perform loosen the soil and watered abundantly.
Agrotechnics growing eggplants in the greenhouse
Eggplants grow well, cultivation and care in the greenhouse, which is performed while maintaining a stable temperature. For the development of culture is recommended a warm, ventilated greenhouse, with a temperature of plus 28 grams. Celsius.
To control this indicator, two thermometers are installed in the greenhouse: below, close to the ground surface, and above - under the roof. In particularly hot weather, the glass greenhouse is covered with a thick cloth on top, so that the fragile seedlings do not get burned, pollination and the formation of ovaries are not disturbed.
Watering Eggplants in the Greenhouse
It is very important to properly water the eggplant in the greenhouse, care for the crop, as well as its yield, depends largely on water. The first watering is carried out on the 5th day after planting the seedlings and once a week. Water is used only warmed to plus 25 grams. Celsius, the earth is saturated with watering up to 20 cm in depth. Water the plants under the root, trying not to wet the lower leaves.
Watering is carried out in the morning, the ground is mulched and the greenhouse is ventilated. This reduces air humidity and maintains high humidity in the soil.
Eggplant Mulching with Straw
During the growth and formation of fruits should be watered eggplant at least twice a week. To reduce the evaporation of moisture in 10-12 hours after watering, the ground is loosened to a depth of 5 cm.
Feeding eggplants in the greenhouse
To improve flowering spend spraying 1 g of boric acid in 5 liters of hot water.
Eggplant fertilizer during flowering
With the onset of fruiting and fruit development, the plants are fed 1 tbsp. superphosphate or 1 tbsp. ammonium nitrate per 1 sq.m. For a better result, chemical fertilizers should be alternated with organic (dusting wood or tobacco ash from the calculation - liter per square meter).
During the beginning of the ripening of the fruits, each plant is fertilized with wood ash in a liquid form, dissolving a liter of ash in a bucket of water (10 liters).
Before harvesting fertilize 1 s. l potassium sulfate dissolved in 10 l. water.
Eggplant garter and pasynka
Many gardeners believe that in order to have good fruit bearing eggplants, cultivation and care in the greenhouse, pinching and pruning of leaves should be carried out regularly and for all varieties. In fact, under greenhouse conditions more often grow stunted varieties that are not tied up and do not pinch, removing only the leaves, which have turned yellowed and shade the fruit.
Eggplant bush formation by removing lower leaves
Growing eggplant in the greenhouse of tall varieties: Nutcracker, Sperm Whale, Torpedo, always includes a garter of grown-up stems. It is especially important to monitor this during the formation of the fruit, as they are quite large and heavy. Without garters, fruiting eggplants can be broken at the root, and the plant will die along with the crop.
Garter do to the trellis or to the greenhouse frame, trying not to damage the fragile stem. At the same time do pruning weak shoots on the trunk, leaving only the strongest side processes.
Garter of tall varieties of eggplants in the greenhouse
If the plant is very large (tall varieties reach 180 cm in height), you can make a garter on one stem three times in different places. At the same time it is important to tie up the eggplants so that they do not obscure the plants growing nearby.
Airing and disinfection
Improper airing of the greenhouse to reduce the humidity of the air causes the appearance of rot and aphids. It is important to place the vents so that when airing creates a stream of air that will circulate inside the greenhouse, blowing both the walls and the plants.
The entire greenhouse, including the frame and the inner cover, must be disinfected before each season. Upgrading the land contributes to good yields and better fruiting, and is also a good means of prevention.
Processing greenhouse bluestone before planting eggplant
Visual inspection and timely treatment of plants
In order to prevent crop loss, it is important to carefully inspect the plants 2-3 times a week to identify signs of infection by diseases and the appearance of parasites.
The main diseases for eggplant are tobacco mosaic, gray mold, internal necrosis and phytophthora. To prevent their appearance, the plants are sprayed with Fitosporin and Zircon according to the instructions.
Signs of the disease on eggplant leaves
Pests that most often affect eggplants: spider mite, aphid, Colorado potato beetle, whitefly. They are assembled by hand or by glue traps, treatment with 7% solution of iron sulphate also helps.
Growing eggplants in the greenhouse in the Urals
Because of the climate, growing eggplants in the Urals in a greenhouse has its own characteristics.
It is necessary to choose early-maturing varieties with a maturity of up to 120 days, or middle-ripening varieties with a maturity of up to 140 days. These include Delicacy 163, Dwarf Early 921, Early Maturing 148, Donetsk Fruitful, Czech Early, Quartet.
Seeds are prepared for planting in February. Previously, they are kept for 20 minutes in a solution of potassium permanganate for disinfection, then they are washed with water and left for 2 hours in a Baikal EM1 stimulator. After that spread on a damp cloth and stored in a bright place. After spitting, the seeds are transplanted into seedlings.
Shoots 1 time in 20 days, watered with mineral soluble fertilizer and sprayed with onion peel extract from spider mite
Seedlings in closed ground planted in June. The first layer should go compost and only then fertile soil. After planting seedlings, the ground is covered with a thick layer of mulch.
The rest of the care and cultivation of eggplants in the Urals is no different from other climatic zones.
Growing eggplant greenhouse in the Urals video
Adhering to the recommendations on how to properly grow eggplants, you can easily prepare the soil and plant the plants in the greenhouse. And maintaining the right temperature and carrying out timely watering, applying supplements and protecting against pests will allow every gardener to harvest a good eggplant crop.
The main advantages of the greenhouse
- Adjustable humidity. The taste of blue little depends on the humidity of the air, they need high humidity. This can be achieved in a greenhouse with ease,
- The possibility of heating. The greenhouse allows you to not depend on the weather outside the window, and with heating, the possibilities expand, adding winter to the list of planting and harvesting seasons.
In which greenhouse is it better to grow eggplants?
There are various options for greenhouses, dividing by:
- Film greenhouse. Economical option greenhouses, but will have to update the film every year, if not more. From strong gusts of wind, it breaks, from hail, too,
- Glass greenhouse. More durable option, but a hundred glass cracking from a large hail or under the weight of snow,
- Polycarbonate greenhouse. This option does not have the drawbacks of the film and glass greenhouses, although the cost of constructing a polycarbonate structure will be higher. Polycarbonate greenhouse is a durable and reliable option, great for planting eggplants.
Also greenhouses are divided into two categories according to the presence of heating:
- Greenhouse without heating. Greenhouses without heating protects plants from hail wind, night temperature extremes. You can plant eggplants in such a greenhouse a little earlier than in open ground. But it does not save from severe frosts,
- Greenhouse with heating. The heating option is preferable for cold regions and for those owners who want to harvest crops year-round. There are plenty of heating options: stoves, wood stoves, solar panels, electric and gas boilers. You can use one type, you can combine them with each other.
In a polycarbonate greenhouse, it is easy to grow varieties of eggplants adapted by the breeders to greenhouse. In general, you can grow almost any blue ones who do not need pollination, if they are still ripe, then it is generally beautiful. Consider the most suitable for greenhouse cultivation varieties of eggplant:
- Bagheera - a variety with small bushes that can be conveniently located in a greenhouse, for example, in two or more rows in compact containers. The variety is resistant to diseases and has a high yield. The fruits are not bitter, they are well preserved and for a long time delight us with their rich taste,
- Violet miracle. Dark-violet variety, moderately productive with a small bush. There is practically no bitterness in the pulp, its color is pale green. Violet miracle belongs to the early ripe varieties, specially designed for growing in greenhouses,
- Nutcracker. High grade requiring garters. Mid-season. Differs in high productivity and bright-violet color. Suitable for high polycarbonate greenhouses,
- Baikal F1. Also high grade, requires a garter. Fruits are pear-shaped, medium, purple. Not bitter. Resistant to diseases, fruits are stored well,
- Black handsome. This variety was bred for open ground, but showed itself well when grown in polycarbonate greenhouses. Black handsome - early ripe variety, has a high yield. The color of the fruit is purple with brown. Eggplant of this variety grows large,
- Bibo. It is a variety with white rounded fruits, devoid of bitterness. It has a very delicate flavor. Bibo is resistant to pests, fruitful, and the fruits are well kept,
- Fabina F1 Very early variety, specially bred for growing in greenhouses. Bushes sredneroslye. The fruits have an interesting mushroom aftertaste, which is pleasant to many gourmets. Fabina is resistant to various diseases and the fruits are well kept
Growing seedlings from seedlings
Of course, you can buy ready-made seedlings and plant them, but many gardeners prefer to grow their own young blue seeds. Observing a few simple rules you can easily grow seedlings for planting in a polycarbonate greenhouse:
- Seed preparation. Preparation includes the awakening of seeds, their decontamination and hardening. Warm up the seeds will help warm water, disinfect 1 percent solution of potassium permanganate, and you can harden in the refrigerator, putting the prepared seeds in it for 48 hours,
- Soil preparation. The soil for eggplants should be neutral in acidity and decontaminated from fungi and pests. A suitable mix is one-to-one peat and sod land and some sand,
- The soil is laid in a lattice with nests, slightly moistened. After the seeds are sown in 2 seeds in one well to a depth of 1 to 2 cm,
- Grown seedlings should be transplanted when it has a sufficiently developed root system, a stem height of 20 cm and at least 8 leaves are available. This usually occurs at the age of 75 days.
Soil preparation: how to plant eggplants in a polycarbonate greenhouse?
Soil preparation in the greenhouse begins in the autumn:
- First, you need to clear the place of planting vegetables from last year's roots and leaves,
- Pour well, so that all fertilizers that are not intended for eggplants are washed off.
- Disinfect with copper sulfate diluted with water. 5 liters of water 1 tablespoon of the drug,
- Then the ground is digged with a shovel or pitchfork. After watering it is better to wait a couple of days
- In the spring, the earth is loosened and ready for planting eggplants.
The root system of eggplants is quite fragile and after transplantation they need good care so that all plants take root and their yield corresponds to the average indicators for the variety.
Watering: how often and how to properly watering eggplants in a polycarbonate greenhouse?
After transplanting, the plants should be watered, but this should be done carefully, without filling the plant with an excess amount of liquid, the soil should become wet. After it is advisable to water young eggplants 1 time every two days with warm water, but preferably drip irrigation. When the first flowers bloom on the plants should begin to water them more and more often.
Temperatatypa and twisting
The air temperature for eggplant growth should be 25-30 degrees during the day and 16-20 degrees at night. These are heat-loving plants that love moisture and a rather hot climate, and their cold can ruin them. Lowering the temperature to 12-14 degrees is not allowed.
For eggplants to grow well and bear fruit, they need to be fertilized. To do this, use nitrogen-phosphate fertilizers. Feed need monthly, then purple vegetables will grow large and juicy.
Some high varieties of eggplant require garters, the main thing is not to start this process otherwise the green bushes will begin to climb along the ground and interfere with other plants. It is necessary to start tying up plants when the length of the stem reaches 30 cm. You can insert supports into the ground in advance, then the garter will not take much time.
How to plant eggplants in the greenhouse:
Diseases and pests
Some pests such as aphids and fruit mites love dryness. Spraying eggplant every day or using drip irrigation will save the plants from these pests. Once a week, spray young eggplants with weak solutions of insecticides, inspect each plant for the presence of larvae. Found larvae must be removed and destroyed.
That's all that can be said about growing and caring for eggplants in a polycarbonate greenhouse. When the fruit is ripe, you can take the harvest and enjoy the juicy soft pulp that can be fried, cooked a game and much more. We hope this article will be useful for you and you will build your greenhouse and will delight yourself and loved ones with excellent fresh vegetables.
Secrets of growing eggplant in the greenhouse:
Choice of variety or hybrid for greenhouse cultivation
Before growing eggplants in the greenhouse, select the appropriate variety for this. In this case, consider several important criteria: ripening time, estimated yield, degree of thermophilicity, requirements for growing conditions: soil, lighting, etc. Early-ripening varieties with large fruits are preferable (such ripen faster). The height of the eggplant bush also matters - the yield of tall plants is always greater. But strong-growing eggplants are more demanding in the care - they must be tied up and properly formed bush. Please note that greenhouse varieties are mostly low and medium, and hybrids, on the contrary, are tall.
In terms of ripening they are divided into 3 groups:
- early ripening - from the time of planting to the gathering of fruits takes 3.5 months,
- mid-season - the growing season is 4 months,
- late ripening - from planting to ripening of fruits takes more than 4 months.
There are a sufficient number of varieties of this vegetable, suitable for planting in closed ground. Here are some of the hybrids and varieties for polycarbonate greenhouses:
- Bard F1. This is an early hybrid. The bush is tall, moderately sprawling, densely leafy. The fruit is a regular cylindrical shape, weight up to 85 g. The flesh is greenish, not bitter, very pleasant to the taste.
- Balagur - a variety of early ripening, resistant to diseases. Bushes up to 1 m tall.
- Vakula is an early ripening variety with high yield and excellent fruit flavor.
- Alenka is a variety with white-green color of ripe fruits that grow up to 15 cm.
- Sophia is a late variety. Bushes are vigorous, pear-shaped fruits, are distinguished by excellent keeping quality.
- Helios is a variety of medium early ripening. The bush is high, the fruits are round with dense cream-colored flesh of unsurpassed delicate taste, reminiscent of a mushroom.
- Pink flamingo - an early variety. The bushes are tall, semi-sprawling. Fruits are elongated, narrow, slightly curved with pinkish-purple skin and white flesh.
- Robin Hood is a rapidly ripening variety with pear-shaped fruits.
- Albatross - a variety with fruits about 15 cm in size, distinguished by yield.
- The namesake is a mid-season variety, distinguished by high yield, resistant to diseases.
- Pundre is a middle-ripening variety with oval fruits, which have a white skin with pink strokes and tender white flesh.
- Philemon - mid-season variety. The bush is a vigorous, fruits are very large, egg-shaped. The flesh is white, not bitter.
- Black Moon - Delicious eggplants, ideal for canning.
- Fabina F1 is a fast-ripening hybrid that produces fruits without bitterness.
- The black handsome man is an early short hybrid with dark purple fruits, without bitterness.
- Purple miracle - eggplant, which can be grown even in the northern regions.
- Sperm whale is a very early and productive variety. The bush is vigorous, half-sprawling. The fruits are large, pear-shaped, with purple skin.
Choosing eggplants for growing in the greenhouse, pay attention to a few more selection criteria. This is the climate of the area, the type of greenhouse, the resistance of the variety or hybrid to diseases and the desired amount of crop. The selected variety must meet all these requirements as best as possible.
Preparing greenhouses for growing eggplants
The first phase of growing eggplant in the greenhouse is preliminary soil preparation. This is a very crucial moment that needs to be given special attention. After all, only in well-prepared soil this vegetable is able to show its full potential.
Start preparing the ground for the next season in the fall:
- Remove all residues.
- Water the soil abundantly so that the remaining unused fertilizer goes along with its water to its lower layer.
- Disinfect the soil by spilling it with boiling water or treating with hot steam.
- When it dries, dig it, going deep into the ground no less than on the bayonet of the shovel. Choose from it the rhizomes of weeds.
- At the same time, add manure or humus to the topsoil. By spring, it will saturate the earth with oxygen, make it airy and normalize acidity.
- Smooth the ground with a rake.
Do not mix manure with lime or wood ash. It is impossible to combine these fertilizers, since nitrogen is lost from manure, and this is its most valuable element. Lime fertilizer applied in the spring, before planting seedlings.
Planting seedlings in the greenhouse
If you decide to grow eggplant seedlings with your own hands, start sowing it approximately 70 days before the intended planting. Use peat pots to avoid injury to the roots of young plants when transplanting.
Before planting eggplants, re-dig the soil again, spill it with a solution of manganese. Then add to the soil organic matter or ready-made complex mixtures with a predominance of nitrogen and phosphorus.
Terms of placement of seedlings in the greenhouse depend on:
- greenhouse type (with or without heating).
The main condition for the successful start of the growing season of eggplant is air temperature from + 17 ... + 19 ° С and soil from + 15 ° С. For different climatic regions, the start time of work will be different. For example, in the Moscow region such conditions for the planting of eggplant seedlings tentatively occur in the middle of May, in the southern regions - in April. But these data are for unheated greenhouses. In heated seedlings can be planted earlier.
Another important condition for the successful development of eggplant is the correct distance between them. These tropical plants love space, so plant them, adhering to the scheme 50 x 60 cm, that is, in the row between two bushes should be at least 50 cm, and between rows - 60 cm.
Make shallow holes in the ground, pour them with water, plant the plants in them, sprinkle them on top with soil and tamp it down a little. Next to eggplants in a greenhouse made of polycarbonate, it’s best not to plant any other vegetables, since they don’t tolerate someone else’s neighborhood. The exception is tomatoes.
Cultivation and care
Eggplants will grow quickly and bear fruit only if the proper agrotechnology of cultivation is observed. Its main stages are: correct planting of seedlings, control of temperature and humidity, destruction of weeds, fight against diseases and pests. Growing eggplants in the greenhouse will be successful only if you organize all the necessary conditions as it should.
Growing eggplants in the greenhouse, it is important to pay attention to air temperature. Keep it within + 25 ... + 28 ° С and do not allow it to fall below + 14 ° С and rise above + 34 ° С - at this temperature eggplants will not grow well. To control the temperature in the greenhouse, buy 2 thermometers and install one of them at the soil level, and the other at the tops of the plants. Adjust the temperature according to their parameters: open or close the doors, sprinkle the paths with water, whiten the roof with lime on the hottest days so that the plants do not get burned under the rays of the sun.
Bushes and garters
The next stage of care for eggplants in the greenhouse, without which this formation and the garter of the bushes cannot be dispensed with. After all, if you leave the adult bushes to lie on the ground, then ripening fruits can quickly rot, and you will not get a harvest. This is especially true for tall varieties. The formation of eggplants in the greenhouse can be done in 3 different ways:
- Put a long stick in the center of a group of 4 grown eggplant and tie them to it with a string. This method is suitable for low and medium varieties.
- Remove all growing stepchildren, leave only the central stem. Tie him with string and tie to a support.
- Pinch the growth point and leave 2-3 strongest branches on the bush, and remove the rest. Tie them too to the trellis.
Also remove from the bushes all drying and yellowing leaves, deformed fruit. Formation continue until the end of the growing season and harvest. Stems, stepchildren, leaves and fruits cut with a knife or shears, and do not tear off his hands.
Prevention of the appearance of diseases and pests
Eggplants, like all nightshade, can have late blight, anthracnose, rot, tobacco mosaic. Especially often these diseases affect them in greenhouses, which is facilitated by an abrupt change in temperature, insufficient ventilation of the bushes, and moisture on the leaves.
To the disease or pests do not prevent the development of bushes, watch the health of their eggplant plantations. To do this, in the spring, disinfect the walls of the greenhouse, the inventory with which you will care for the eggplants in the greenhouse with bleach, copper sulphate or formalin. During the growth of plants, sprinkle the beds with mustard powder or black pepper, and spray the plants themselves with tobacco or garlic tincture. The most suitable preparations for treating the bushes in the greenhouse are Fitosporin and Zircon.
Tips and recommendations from experienced gardeners
Among the features of growing eggplants in the greenhouse are the following:
- Insufficient pollination of flowers. Insects rarely fly inside greenhouses, so regularly pollinate the flowers with a soft brush by hand.
- "Correct" time of collecting fruits. Do not wait until the eggplant is fully ripe: such fruits are tasteless, bitter, with hard seeds. Start collecting them when they have reached their varietal size and color, but have not yet become coarse.
- Proper cutting of fruits. Do not tear them from the branches with your hands, so you can damage the bush. Cut the fruit with a knife or shears along with a small part of the stem.
- Terms and conditions of storage. Eggplant is a perishable product and is not stored for long in the heat. Therefore, keep them in a cool, dry place. So they will last about 1 month.
Grade selection rules
The soil and climatic conditions in each region of our country are very diverse, therefore, in the middle belt and northern regions of Russia, gardeners prefer growing heat-loving crops in greenhouse conditions. Planting and growing eggplants in a greenhouse is a fascinating, but very responsible occupation.requiring a gardener to have knowledge and some skills.
When choosing a greenhouse variety eggplant should be guided not only by the botanical features of the culture, but also the type of construction of a protected ground. If it is advisable to grow early-ripening and mid-early varieties and hybrids in unheated greenhouses, then for cultivation in winter and heated constructions, preference should be given to late-ripening and relatively tall plants capable of forming the maximum amount of crop on the minimum landing area.
Popular greenhouse varieties
In recent years, domestic and foreign breeders have developed a large number of very interesting, high-yielding and relatively unpretentious care varieties and hybrids of eggplant, which are optimally adapted for growing in greenhouse conditions. Such varieties and hybrids are distinguished not only by yield and taste, but also by coloring the fruit.
Features greenhouse landing
Greenhouse cultivation of eggplant begins with the proper preparation of ridges and seed material. In the southern regions, direct sowing of seeds is allowed, but in the middle lane and northern areas it is advisable to plant seedlings in the greenhouse. In the fall, after harvesting, all plant residues and weeds should be removed.
To remove the remains of organic compounds from the soil it is necessary to conduct abundant watering of greenhouse soil. It is also important to disinfect the soil on the ridges, which can be done by boiling water, copper sulfate solution, formalin or bleach. Decontaminated soil should be subjected to deep digging and loosening.
Seeds should be calibrated, decontaminated and germinated. You can pre-check the seeds for germination by conducting a test fit. Disinfection is recommended to carry out one of the following methods:
- soaking the eggplant seeds for a quarter of an hour in a solution of hydrogen peroxide, followed by washing in clean warm water,
- soaking the seeds in a solution of aloe juice, diluted with water at room temperature in a ratio of 1: 1, which well stimulates the growth of culture,
- soaking the eggplant seeds for a quarter of an hour in a weak pink solution of potassium permanganate, followed by washing in water at room temperature.
Prepared seeds should be sown in seedlings prepared in advance prepared and filled with nutrient soil mixture. The depth of sowing seeds - one and a half to two centimeters. The standard scheme for growing eggplant in greenhouse conditions is 60-65 cm between rows and 30-35 cm between plants. For each square meter you need to plant no more than six plants. It should be remembered that excessive thickening of plantings causes a decrease in yield.
Eggplants belong to the category of light-loving crops that are demanding of enough sunlight. In areas with insufficient daylight it is recommended to use the additional lighting of plants with mercury, metal-halogen or luminescent lighting devices. Standard daylight hours should be approximately 14 hours.
When growing eggplants to get high yields can only be when creating the optimal temperature. The ideal temperature indicators of air in the greenhouse, necessary for the growth and fruiting of the plant, are approximately 22-25 ° C. Even a short decrease in temperature to the level of 14-15 ° C causes a marked slowdown in the growth and development of the culture.
Irrigation measures and humidity
The increased air humidity provokes infection of eggplant with pathogenic fungal microflora. At the same time, it is necessary to maintain sufficient moisture for the culture and to prevent the greenhouse soil from drying out. Watering young plants should be moderate.using distilled water, the temperature of which should be in the range of 18-20 ° C. Adult and productive plants should provide sufficiently intensive irrigation measures. After irrigation, shallow loosening is required, which can be replaced with mulch from compost, hay, humus or black nonwoven material. Good result gives the use of drip irrigation system.
Organization of dressings
The drip irrigation system allows you to apply to the soil not only water, but also the main batteries in the form of liquid fertilizers. Fertilizing with organics at the flowering stage should be carried out manually, using for this purpose a solution of bird droppings or mullein. And the main mineral fertilizers are most conveniently applied along with irrigation, through a drip irrigation system.
What should be the greenhouse
Polycarbonate greenhouses are considered the best for growing various vegetables, including eggplants. This material transmits the sun rays well and evenly scatters them, so each plant receives the maximum of the necessary heat and light.
The greenhouse should be installed in an open area, protected from strong winds. If the room is blown heavily, the temperature in it is much more difficult to regulate, since it can cool sharply.
Also in a greenhouse made of polycarbonate, there must necessarily be a special window for ventilation, because it is through ventilation that the humidity and temperature of the air can be controlled.
Soil preparation in the greenhouse
It is necessary to prepare the soil for growing eggplants in the greenhouse in autumn. For this greenhouse beds need to dig and carefully remove all plant residues from past plantings. The last point is particularly important, because it is in dry stems and weeds that carriers of diseases and pests overwinter. Next, the soil must be shed several times with pure water: it is necessary that the remnants of fertilizers go deep into the ground.
Next, the soil in the greenhouse should be well disinfected to destroy the pathogens contained in it. For this, the soil can be spilled with boiling water or treated with hot steam. Formalin or dry lime can also be introduced into the ground, which can effectively kill disease carriers. For tillage, you can also purchase special chemicals.
In the spring, the land before planting will be enough just to loosen.
Seed preparation for planting
To get a good harvest in the greenhouse, it is important to choose the right variety of plants and prepare eggplant seeds for planting. So, buying seed is best not on the market, but in specialized stores for gardeners who offer guaranteed high-quality goods.
The variety of eggplants should be chosen, taking into account the climatic features of a particular region, the yield from one bush and its own taste preferences. The main thing is that the selected hybrid is suitable for growing in specific climatic conditions: if you plan to breed eggplants in the middle lane, then the plant must be well able to withstand temperature changes.
Seeds before planting need to be sanitized, because carriers of diseases can be covered not only in the soil, but also in plant embryos. For disinfection, seed can be soaked for 20 minutes in a one percent solution of potassium permanganate. You can also apply heat treatment: immerse the kernels for 20 minutes in hot (+50 degrees) water, then immerse them in cold water for 1 minute, leave microelements for 12 hours, then dry and place in the refrigerator for a day. This preparation not only reduces the risk of disease seedlings eggplant, but also accelerates the germination of seeds.
Growing eggplant seedlings
Since eggplants are distinguished by their capriciousness in care and the long growing season, they are grown mainly through seedlings. For this, seeds are sown in separate pots filled with peat-based soil mixture and well watered. Seeds do not need to be deeply buried in the ground, a maximum of 0.5-1 cm, otherwise they may not germinate. It is worth noting that eggplant seedlings are rarely grown with a pick, because these plants are very sensitive to transplanting.
Until the first shoots appear, the temperature in the room should be set at +25 degrees, and after the seeds germinate, it can be reduced to +16 degrees for several days. Then you can set a stable temperature: +25 degrees during the day and +18 degrees at night.
Caring for seedlings is a regular watering as the land dries up in containers, periodic dressing and hardening before transplanting to a permanent place. Sprouts are considered ready for "relocation" in the greenhouse, when they appear on 5-7 of these leaves.
For planting plants in the greenhouse, in the soil you need to make holes 15-20 cm deep, pour 1.5-2 liters of water into each one and place seedlings there. It is not necessary to deeply plant sprouts in the ground, it is enough that the soil level exceeds the pot by 1 cm. If the seedlings grew in peat pots, then they can be placed in the holes with it.
The optimal scheme of planting eggplants in the greenhouse: at least 30 cm between individual bushes and at least 60 cm between rows.
Forming a bush
Passing eggplant in the greenhouse allows you to prevent excessive growth of hardwood to the detriment of fruits. To do this, when the plants grow to 25 cm in height, it is necessary to pinch off the tops of their main stems. This activates the growth of lateral shoots and helps to form a bush. It is also necessary to remove yellowed leaves, excess processes and defective ovaries.
Growing eggplants in a polycarbonate greenhouse will give excellent results if you know the basic secrets of plant care. By providing vegetables with the necessary nutrition and optimal temperature conditions, you can achieve a rich harvest without problems.
What varieties of eggplants are better to plant in the greenhouse? For growing in greenhouses suitable early-maturing varieties that do not require pollination. It is best to plant hybridsspecially designed for closed ground. When choosing varieties of eggplants for a polycarbonate greenhouse, it is important to take into account many factors: the color and taste of fruits, yield, the ability to store the harvested crop.
Every gardener has his own the best varieties of eggplant for greenhousesamong which the following are often noted:
Purple miracle. Variety resistant to diseases and pests. The bush is compact, suitable even for low greenhouses. Early ripe grade of average productivity, fruits are dark-violet, cylindrical. Pulp is dense, greenish-white, very pleasant to the taste, without bitterness. Ripened eggplants are very convenient to collect, they are almost devoid of thorns in the stalk.
Nutcracker. Very productive variety. Bushes grow quite tall. Tall varieties of eggplants require garters. The fruits are very large, bright purple, with dense white flesh without bitterness. Harvested eggplants are perfectly stored.
Black handsome. In regions with a warm climate is grown in the soil, but in the middle lane it is better to put it in the greenhouse. The variety is fruitful, early maturing. Fruits are brown-purple, large, the flesh is tender and not bitter. Resistant to disease, fruits are well kept.
Bibo. Resistant to pests grade, characterized by high yield. The fruits are white, round, very tender and pleasant to taste. The flesh is absolutely devoid of bitterness. Harvested eggplant well stored.
Marzipan. Early grade eggplant for greenhouses. Very fruitful. Bushes are compact, fruits are round, bright purple. The flesh is very delicate, with a pleasant sweetish-fresh taste, without the slightest sign of bitterness. Eggplant is great for canning.
Moneymaker. High-yielding variety. The fruits are elongated, rounded, dark purple. Small elegant eggplants are perfectly stored, they are very good for canning.
Which greenhouse to choose?
Eggplant Can grow in a greenhouse with or without heating. The second option is suitable for summer time, the greenhouse helps to maintain a stable microclimate, protects plants from wind gusts, night temperatures, hail and other weather vagaries. In such a shelter seedlings are planted in late spring.
Most available option - greenhouse covered with film. It keeps warmth well, lets in sunlight. However, the fragile film is quickly torn and deformed, such a coating will have to be changed every year. The glass is more durable, but can crack under the weight of snow.
The best option cover for greenhouses - polycarbonate. It is expensive, but without any problems serves several seasons. Having invested in such a structure, you can take good yields and not worry about the annual restoration of the greenhouse. Polycarbonate is better mounted on a metal frame with a special treatment that protects the structure from corrosion.
Greenhouse for growing eggplant may be arched or pitched. There are also wall structures adjacent to the house, utility room and other structures. The height and size of the greenhouse depends on the capabilities of its owner.
Vegetables are best grown in the ground, but some gardeners prefer shelving, increasing the useful area of greenhouses.
In order for plants to develop well, greenhouses can be equipped with lighting. If the greenhouse is very large is recommended equip it with a system drip irrigation. Eggplant - moisture-loving culture, this watering will help maintain the desired degree of soil moisture. Good ventilation is required.
Heating the greenhouse is better in a combined way. Maintain the required temperature biofuel will help (a mixture of manure and straw, rotted and placed under the top layer of soil). You can warm the greenhouse using solar panels, electric boiler or fire, driving warm air through the pipes. For express heating useful heaters or stoves, stoves.
How to grow eggplants in a polycarbonate greenhouse? Eggplants are not considered too whimsical culture. They are resistant to pests, distinguished by rapid growth, respond well to fertilizing. Success can even beginner grower. The process begins with the cultivation of seedlings. It can be bought ready-made, but it has many advantages for those sowed personally:
- sprouts get stronger and viable
- the process of transplanting and survival is facilitated.
Purchased soil for seedlings is not suitable. They have a too large percentage of peat, which does not give the seed strength for full development. It is better to make a mixture for planting yourself using one of the following recipes:
- a mixture of humus, garden soil and river sand (2x2x1),
- peat, garden soil, sawdust (2x1x3),
- compost, peat, garden soil, river sand (1x1x2x1).
The mixture must be ignited for the destruction of insect larvae and pathogens. After that, the prepared soil is spilled with a bio-solution of the “Baikal” type to restore beneficial microflora.
Superphosphate or other mineral fertilizers in the proportion of 20 g per 10 liters of soil must be made to the soil mixture. Instead of ready-made complexes can use wood ash. During the period of growth, seedlings are watered several times with a solution of nitrogen fertilizers, which allow the formation of a bush with a green mass.
Seedlings most conveniently planted in plastic containers with cassettes. They retain moisture well and facilitate the process of transplanting grown plants. Peat pots undesirable.
The weak roots of young eggplants cannot grow through the walls, as a result of which the plants develop poorly. When to plant eggplants for greenhouses? Sowing is carried out at the end of January or in February. For heated greenhouses, seedlings can be prepared earlier, plants for ordinary greenhouses are planted in late February.
Prepared seeds are sown in a well-moistened soil. Seeds are not buried, they should be dusted with a thin layer of soil mixture on top. Capacity with seeds covered with glass. Seedlings should be regularly sprayed with soft water at room temperature, moistening not only the ground, but also the air around it.
For germination seeds need a stable temperature (20-22ºC), high humidity and bright light. It is recommended to organize the illumination for 3-4 hours daily.
When the seeds germinate, they begin to harden, removing the film for a few minutes first, and then increasing the hardening time to an hour or more. It is advisable to move the plants to sunlight and closely monitor the soil moisture. Weak sprouts better to remove, it will give the opportunity to grow only strong and viable plants.
Planting and care
The technology of growing eggplants in the greenhouse.
How to grow eggplants in the greenhouse? In the heated greenhouse sprouted seedlings can be planted in early spring. The seedlings prepared for movement should have the following parameters:
- about 75 days old
- developed root system
- 8-9 leaves,
- stem height up to 20 cm.
A clear signal to urgent transplant will be the appearance of buds on young plants. Growing and caring for eggplants in the greenhouse, the process is painstaking.
The soil in the greenhouse loosens, moistened, mixed with manure or compost. To reduce the acidity in the soil can be made dolomite flour. Ash and potassium sulfate will help improve nutrition. If the soil is too dense, it is worth adding sawdust.
The scheme of planting eggplant in the greenhouse: young plants are planted at a distance of 45 cm, distance between rows - 60 cm. Carefully move the seedlings to a new place of residence, the root system of eggplants is very fragile.
How to care for eggplants in the greenhouse? After transplanting requires moderate watering with warm water, it is preferable to do it in the early morning. Airing is recommended after watering. It is important to ensure that young air does not get cold air.
For good growth eggplants need fertilizer. Fertilizing is carried out three times per season, after the start of fruiting, nitrogen-phosphorus complexes are recommended. Organic fertilizers after planting in the ground are not used, they contribute to the large development of green mass to the detriment of the fruit.
Find out on our website which garden crops are compatible with eggplant when planted in one greenhouse, as well as what else can be grown in a greenhouse.
Plants in the greenhouse must be protected from pests. Most often, eggplants are affected by the whitefly aphids, fruit mites. Help protect them air moistening and periodic spraying plants. Use clean water and weak insecticide solutions.
When the stems stretch to 30 cm, they need to be tied to supports. With the beginning of flowering it is necessary to increase watering and start weekly feeding complex fertilizers for tomatoes. Harvesting is recommended when the length of the fruit reaches 8 cm. Ripe eggplants have a shiny skin. Don't wait too long overripe fruits can taste bitterbesides, they produce a large number of hard seeds.
Growing eggplants in a greenhouse can not only provide the family with delicious early vegetables, but also to be the start of your own business. Having built a spacious greenhouse up to 100 square meters. m, you provide yourself with a stable income, and eggplant yields will grow several times.
About growing eggplants in the greenhouse in the video:
Selection of planting material
Growing eggplant should begin with the selection of planting material.Good care for eggplants will not give tangible results if the variety is not intended for greenhouse cultivation. Since the culture is thermophilic, in our latitudes should pick up special varieties. For self-growing seedlings should choose the seeds of such varieties:
- Violet miracle F1. Good early hybrid, adapted for a short summer. The vegetative period of these eggplants does not exceed 100 days. Shrubs are quite compact, which is very convenient when growing them in a greenhouse. Fruits are a classic purple color. Their weight reaches 0.3 kg
- The Nutcracker F1. This is a special greenhouse variety eggplant. Differs in a long fruiting period. Bushes grow to large sizes, so they must be tied up. The yield of the cultivar Nutcracker comes to 20 kg from one square meter. Plants in a polycarbonate greenhouse begin to bear fruit after 45 days,
- Bibo F1. Very interesting variety, which was born thanks to the Dutch breeders. The fruits are white. The weight and size of the fruits are calibrated, which gives them a good presentation. Bibo F1 is a greenhouse culture, it is difficult to cultivate it in the open field,
- Hippo F1. Mid-season greenhouse variety. Differs large fruits, whose weight reaches 0.4 kg. The yield is not the highest, but this hybrid is well suited for growing in our area.
Seedlings do not necessarily grow independently. Today there are nurseries in which experts grow very good seedlings of the most different varieties.